Between 1461 and 1598 Trabzon remained the administrative center of the wider region; first as 'sanjac center' of Rum Eyalet, later of Erzincan-Bayburt eyalet, Anadolu Eyalet, and Erzurum Eyalet [34]. It traded as far as Tabriz and Mosul. Vous avez 4 manières de vous rendre de Saint-Denis à Aéroport de Dusseldorf (DUS). Le cycle complet de l'école secondaire (lycée) dure six ou sept ans. [39], In July 1915, most of the adult male Armenians of the city were marched off south in five convoys, towards the mines of Gümüşhane, never to be seen again. Black Sea Technical University in Trabzon hosts students from all over Turkey, especially from the Black Sea and East Anatolian regions, as well as students from the Turkic states in Central Asia. According to some sources the Russians banned Muslim mosques, and forced Turks, who were the largest ethnic group living in the city, to leave Trabzon. ÎLE DE LA RÉUNION À PIED (L') - P974 Apr 23 2018. by COLLECTIF. [6][9] The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. Caucasian and Eastern Anatolian influences are especially evident in Hagia Sophia. There are no historical records of any considerable Turkish-speaking groups in the Trabzon area until the late 15th century, with the exception of the Chepnis. Starting from the 9th century BC, the city had also been mentioned by historians such as Homeros, Herodotus, Hesiodos. Umumî Müfettiş Tahsin Uzer'in Bazı Önemli Faaliyetleri", "Young Turk social engineering : mass violence and the nation state in eastern Turkey, 1913- 1950",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 20:29. [33] Approximately 85% of them were Christian and 15% Muslim. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, and it can be heavy once it snows. A theater performance in Trebizond c. 1900. Ile de la Réunion - Vous aimez voyager, mais vous ne savez pas où partir ni que visiter ? The water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 °C (46 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F) throughout the year. Its demographic legacy endured for several centuries after the Ottoman conquest in 1461, as a substantial number of Greek Orthodox inhabitants, usually referred to as Pontic Greeks, continued to live in the area during Ottoman rule, up until 1923, when they were deported to Greece. Topal Osman's men would eventually murder parliamentarian Şükrü for his criticism of the nationalist government of Mustafa Kemal. Precipitation is heaviest in autumn and winter, with a marked reduction in the summer months, a microclimatic condition of the city center compared to the rest of the region. "[55] Trabzon was known for producing poor quality cereals, most which were grown for local use. Arrivés à St Pierre, capitale du Sud de la Réunion, vous pourrez profiter de la plage et du front de mer. Trabzon Province (Turkish: Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. The efforts of the pro-Ottoman, anti-nationalist population of Trebizond only postponed the inevitable, because the national governments of Turkey and Greece agreed to a mutual forced population exchange. Orasul Trabzon a primit un rating de 3.5 / 5 de la clientii Direct Booking (1 opinii in perioada 30.05.2017 - 30.05.2017). Especially Alexios II of Trebizond and his grandson Alexios III were patrons of the arts and sciences. International schools were also established in the city; An American school, five French schools, a Persian school and a number of Italian schools were opened in the second half of the 19th century [36]. The monastery is built on the side of a very steep mountain overlooking the green forests below and is about 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city. Choniades brought with him the works of Shams al-Din al-Bukhari,[30] Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini from Tabriz, which he translated into Greek. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. In 1598 it became the capital of its own province - the Eyalet of Trebizond - which in 1867 became the Vilayet of Trebizond. Lazistan Sanjak fell within two days. The Mongol siege of Baghdad in 1258 diverted more trade caravans towards the city. En cas de réutilisation des textes de cette page, voyez comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. 'The lure of Trebizond' by Anthony Eastmond, in, Rev. The coastal highway and a new harbour have increased commercial relations with central Anatolia, which has led to some growth. Trebizond's trade partners included the Mossynoeci. The Black Sea region of Turkey is the world's largest producer of cherry and hazelnut; and a large production area of tea; all of which play an important role in the local cuisine. [10] Western geographers and writers used many spelling variations of the name throughout the middle ages. The Hayasa, who had been in conflict with the Central-Anatolian Hittites in the 14th century BCE, are believed to have lived in the area south of Trabzon. Les stations de contrôle de la qualité de l’air de GAIA utilisent des capteurs de particules laser de haute technologie pour mesurer en temps réel la pollution par les P2,5, l’un des polluants les plus nocifs. İsmail Ustaoğlu was appointed the Governor of the province in October 2018.[3]. The city received the status of civitas libera, extending it judicial autonomy and the right to mint its own coin. [67] It was stated by the ambassador that the Armenians, who were not well-liked by the Greeks, had a population large enough to support a resident bishop. Trabzon has a climate typical of the Black Sea region with plentiful precipitation. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church and monastery of Panagia Theoskepastos (Kızlar Manastırı) in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south of the modern harbor. Trebizond gained importance for its access to roads leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. Trabzon has four lakes: Uzungöl, Çakırgöl, Sera and Haldizen Lakes. In 1835, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions opened the Trebizond Mission station that it occupied from 1835 to 1859 and from 1882 to at least 1892. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the Meydan, a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden. Hence, the most important export products, tobacco and hazelnuts, could not be sold and living standards degraded. [64] Modern migration since the dissolution of the Soviet Union has brought a significant number of Russians, Ukrainians and people from the Caucasus (mostly Georgia) into the city. Subsequently, a series of war crimes trials were held in Trebizond in early 1919 (see Trebizond during the Armenian Genocide). The Italian maritime republics such as the Republic of Venice and in particular the Republic of Genoa were active in the Black Sea trade for centuries, using Trebizond as an important seaport for trading goods between Europe and Asia. Cyrus the Great added the city to the Achaemenid Empire, and was possibly the first ruler to consolidate the eastern Black Sea region into a single political entity (a satrapy). The "Horon" is a famous dance that is indigenous to the city and its surrounding area. Atatürk Alani at Meydan square in Taksim (central Trabzon). The university drew students not just from the Byzantine Empire, but from Armenia as well. Between one and two thousand Armenians are believed to have been killed in the Trebizond vilayet during the Hamidian massacres of 1895. Located at the far northeastern corner of Anatolia, it was the longest surviving of the Byzantine successor states. When the Russians occupied Trabzon, a mole was built. During Ottoman times, Tara Bozan was also used. An important Roman and Byzantine centre, it was the capital of the Empire of Trebizond from 1204 to 1461. This trade provided a source of revenue to the state in the form of custom duties, or kommerkiaroi, levied on the goods sold in Trebizond. The total area is 22.4% plateau and 77.6% hills. In Latin, Trabzon was called Trapezus, which is a latinization of its ancient Greek name. "[19] An inscription above the eastern gate of the city, commemorated the reconstruction of the civic walls following an earthquake at Justinian's expense. [57] The area produced copper, silver, zinc, iron and manganese. 8 апреля в среду- в 18 часов таинство Соборования. However, the city gained great wealth from the taxes it levied on the goods traded between Persia and Europe via the Black Sea. [35] Hundreds of schools were constructed in the province during the first half of the 19th century, giving the region one of the highest literacy rates of the empire. 1st ed. reunion obţinute în dicţionarul engleză - română la Glosbe, dicţionar online, gratis. STICKZIF SR974-1 2 Adhésif Autocollants Région Département 974 Île de La Réunion, 4.5 X 10 CM, Set de 2. [46] Following the war and the annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), which was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), Trebizond became part of the new Turkish republic. Tobacco and hazelnuts were exported. This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 22:04. Outside of the relatively urban space of Trabzon proper, and within parts of it as well, rural traditions from the Black Sea village life are still thriving. [73] Michael Meeker stresses the cultural resemblances (e.g. Écoutez Les vingt plus belles chansons de La Réunion (Ile de La Réunion) par Various Artists sur Deezer. One of the most famous persons to have visited the city in this period was Marco Polo, who ended his overland return journey at the port of Trebizond, and sailed to his hometown Venice with a ship; passing by Constantinople (Istanbul) on the way, which was retaken by the Byzantines in 1261. [18], By the time of Justinian, the city served as an important base in his Persian Wars, and Miller notes that a portrait of the general Belisarius "long adorned the church of St. It is historically known in English as Trebizond. After the great city fire of 1310, the ruined university was reestablished. Regional dishes include the Akçaabat köfte (spicy lamb meatball from the Akçaabat district), Karadeniz pidesi (canoe shaped pita bread, often filled with ground beef, cheese and eggs), kuymak (a Turkish fondue made with cornmeal, fresh butter and cheese), Vakfıkebir ekmeği (large country-style bread), Tonya tereyağı (Tonya butter), tava mısır ekmeği (deep-dish corn bread) and kara lahana çorbası (bean and cabbage soup). Basilios Bessarion and George of Trebizond travelled to Italy and taught and published works on Plato and Aristotle, starting a fierce debate and literary tradition that continues to this day on the topic of national identity and global citizenship. Thirteen percent of the adult males belonged to the Armenian community, while most of the other Christians were Greeks. Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition (December 1994), Indiana University Press, Calzolari, V. "The Armenian translation of the Greek Neoplatonic Works" in, Robert W. Edwards, “The Garrison Forts of the Pontos: A Case for the Diffusion of the Armenian Paradigm,”. The governor and mayor of Trebizond were appalled by the violence against Ottoman Greek subjects,[45] and the government of Trabzon thus refused arms to Mustafa Kemal's henchman Topal Osman, who was responsible for mass murders in the western Pontus. [25] Although he was killed by the Turks in 1098, other members of his family continued his de facto independent rule into the next century. As part of the university Gregory Choniades opened a new academy of astronomy, which housed the best observatory outside Persia. In high season it might be wise to buy your return ticket when arriving in Uzungöl(or already in Trabzon), if you intend to go back to Trabzon the same day. The last Emperor of Trebizond, David, surrendered the city to Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1461. [32] Following this takeover, Mehmed II sent many Turkish settlers into the area, but the old ethnic Greek, Laz and Armenian communities remained. These works later found their way to western Europe, together with the astrolabe. The Chepni people, a tribe of Oghuz Turks who played an important role in the history of the eastern Black Sea area in the 13th and 14th centuries, live in the Şalpazarı (Ağasar valley) region of the Trabzon Province. The city still has a sizable community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally from the vicinities of Tonya, Sürmene and Çaykara. To secure their part of the Black Sea trade, the Genoese bought the coastal fortification "Leonkastron", just west of the winter harbour, in the year 1306. After pressure from the opposition his headless body was hanged by his foot in front of the Turkish parliament. [21] According to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda it was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. In Ottoman Turkish and Persian, it is written as طربزون. Basil. [33] However, a significant portion of the local Christians were Islamized by the end of the 17th century - especially those outside the city - according to a research by Prof. Halil İnalcık on the Ottoman tax books (tahrir defterleri). În 2013, Hagia Sofia, aproape la fel de veche ca sora ei mai mare din Istanbul, a fost transformată din muzeu în moschee, „de parcă orașul n-ar fi avut destule moschei, care sunt mereu pe jumătate goale”, după cum s-a exprimat un consilier local. [19] At some point before the 7th century the university (Pandidakterion) of the city was reestablished with a quadrivium curriculum. A bombardment of the city in 1915 by the Russian navy cost the lives of 1300 citizens. In comparison, only 1 or 2 percent of the province is classified as subtropical, the mountainous areas near the shores being oceanic (Köppen: Cfb), the mountainous offshores being humid continental (Köppen: Dfb), subarctic (Köppen: Dfc) and tundra (Köppen: ET) in the peaks of the Pontic Alps[50]. Les stations de contrôle de la qualité de l’air de GAIA utilisent des capteurs de particules laser de haute technologie pour mesurer en temps réel la pollution par les P2,5, l’un des polluants les plus nocifs. Uzun Sokak, a pedestrianized shopping street. The province was restored to Turkish control in early 1918 following Russia's exit from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. CDN$ 119.42 (7 used & new offers) Anish kapoor The Pontic Mountains pass through the Trabzon Province. After the defeat of Mithridates in 66 BCE the city was first handed to the Galatians, but it was soon returned to the grandson of Mithradates, and subsequently became part of the new client Kingdom of Pontus. [22] The Greeks protected the coastal and inland trade routes with a vast network of garrison forts.[23]. [69] At present, Trabzon does not have an Armenian-speaking community. As early as the First Council of Nicea, Trebizond had its own bishop. The character Temel, a universal buffoon figure found in many cultures, forms an important part of the Turkish oral tradition. La Éducation dans L'Réunion. Among these migrants were the grandparents of Bob Dylan and Greek politicians and artists. [18] Subsequently, the Bishop of Trebizond was subordinated to the Metropolitan Bishop of Poti. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 5 °C (41 °F) in January. "Trapezus" redirects here. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood and sons, 1851. New roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian. In the first half of the 19th century, Trebizond even became the main port for Persian exports. CDN$ 67.96 (2 used & new offers) ÎLE DE LA RÉUNION (L') Jul 10 2018. by COLLECTIF. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. The temperatures may drop below -30 °C (-22 °F). As of 1920, the port at Trabzon was considered "the most important of the Turkish Black Sea ports" by the British. Trabzon used to be an important reference point for navigators in the Black Sea during harsh weather conditions. The Russian Army ultimately retreated from the city and the rest of eastern and northeastern Anatolia. [37] Ivan Aivazovsky made the painting Massacre of the Armenians in Trebizond 1895 based on the events. During the Turkish War of Independence several Christian Pontic Greek communities in the Trebizond vilayet rebelled against the new army of Mustafa Kemal (notably in Bafra and Santa), but when nationalist Greeks came to Trabzon to proclaim revolution, they were not received with open arms by the local Pontic Greek population of the city. [17] Eugenius had destroyed the statue of Mithras which overlooked the city from Mount Minthrion (Boztepe), and became the patron saint of the city after his death. There are three levels of NUTS defined, with two levels of local administrative units (LAUs) below. Trabzon Province (Turkish: Trabzon ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Islamismul a avut în regiunea Trabzon mereu tente mai conservatoare, care periodic surprind neplăcut. Under the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa)[49] Summers are warm and humid, and the average maximum temperature is around 26.7 °C (80 °F) in August. Sa préfecture (en turc : valiliği) est Trabzon. Compared to most previously Greek cities in Turkey, a large amount of its Greek Byzantine architectural heritage survives as well. Up until the conquests of Alexander the Great the city remained under the dominion of the Achaemenids. [53] They built a breakwater and were responsible for creating an extended pier, making loading and unloading easier. [3] The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trabzon during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric. In 1912 the Sümer Opera House was opened on the central Meydan square, being one of the first in the empire. The city's profile was raised somewhat in the English-speaking world by Dame Rose Macaulay's last novel, The Towers of Trebizond (1956), which is still in print.[77]. Among others, Cemal Azmi was sentenced to death in absentia. [56], Trabzon produced a white green bean, which was sold in Europe. Early Christians sought refuge in the Pontic Mountains south of the city, where they established Vazelon Monastery in 270 AD and Sumela Monastery in 386 AD. Trabzon has a number of tourist attractions, some of them dating back to the times of the ancient empires that once existed in the region. Major exports from Trabzon include hazelnuts and tea. The Ottoman government often appointed local Chepni Turks and Laz beys as the regional beylerbey. Trebizond had a wealthy merchant class during the late Ottoman period, and the local Christian minority had a substantial influence in terms of culture, economy and politics. As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. For the Arcadian city, see, Emblem of Trabzon Metropolitan Municipality, Head and hand of a 2nd c. BCE bronze statue of (possibly, The 10th-century cathedral Panaghia Chrysokephalos (now. Trabzon is also famous for its hazelnuts. Trabzon — Türkiyənin ərazisinin böyüklüyünə görə ən böyük iyirmi doqquzuncu şəhəridir. Trabzon is famous throughout Turkey for its anchovies called hamsi, which are the main meal in many restaurants in the city. Pontic Greek has been spoken in the region since early antiquity. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of little more than a narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea, and not much further inland than the Pontic Mountains. At the same time the Muslim population of the city, remembering their protection under Greek governor Crhysantos, protested the arrest of prominent Christians. At the same time, thousands of Muslim refugees from the Caucasus arrived in the city, especially after 1864, in what is known as the Circassian genocide. The first known plan of Trebizond, drawn around 1604–1610 by Julien Bordier. A number of European consulates were opened in the city due to its importance in regional trade and commerce. Trabzon's weather station also sees tendencies of a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), but with only one month below 40 mm (1.6 in) rainfall in summer it just fails to qualify. There are several streams, but no rivers in Trabzon. This rule proved transient when an expert soldier and local aristocrat, Theodore Gabras took control of the city from the Turkish invaders, and regarded Trebizond, in the words of Anna Comnena, "as a prize which had fallen to his own lot" and ruled it as his own kingdom. Trabzon (Turkish pronunciation: , Romeika: Trapezounta), historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. [78] The building of this institution (built in 1902) still remains the most impressive Pontic Greek monument in the city and today hosts the Turkish school Anadolu Lisesi.[79]. Trebizond also benefited when the trade route regained importance in the 8th to 10th centuries; 10th-century Muslim authors note that Trebizond was frequented by Muslim merchants, as the main source transshipping Byzantine silks into eastern Muslim countries. [31] Scientists and philosophers of Trebizond were among the first western thinkers to compare contemporaneous theories with classical Greek texts. [4] Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east. As with other major cities on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, Trabzon is situated right on the waterfront, thus allowing for the additional 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) enough to surpass the threshold to be classified as subtropical. New churches and mosques were built in the second half of the 19th century, as well as the first theater, public and private printing houses, multiple photo-studios and banks. Trabzon's Bazaar District offers interesting shopping opportunities on ancient narrow streets, continuing from Kunduracılar Street from the Meydan (town square). [76] While similar to Russian Cossack dances in terms of vividness, the Trabzon folk dance is probably indigenous to the eastern Black Sea region, which has an impressive variety of folk music. Through his newspaper Tan, Şükrü and his colleagues publicized critiques of the Kemalist government, such as its violence towards Greeks during the population exchange. Feladatok. Trabzon hosted the First Edition of the Black Sea Games in July 2007 and the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival. According to Ronald C. Jennings, in the early 16th century, Armenians made up approximately 13 percent[68] of the city's population. According to Greek sources,[citation needed] the city was founded in classical antiquity in 756 BCE as Tραπεζούς (Trapezous), by Milesian traders from Sinope. The Black Death arrived at the city in September 1347, probably via Kaffa. [70] Very little has been written on the Turkification of the area. Like most Greek colonies, the city was a small enclave of Greek life, and not an empire unto its own, in the later European sense of the word. Ankara, 2011, "The Mint of Trebizond under Alexius I and the Gabrades", "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Haber Yazdır : Trabzon'un fethi araştırmaları ve 15 ağustos 1461 – Of hayrat haberleri", The constitutional revolution of 1908 and its aftermath in Trabzon, "Image of an Atrocity: Ivan (Hovhannes) Aivazovsky's, "Massacre of Christians before Evacuation of Trebizond", Seattle City Council and Asia Minor – The articles of Herbert Adams Gibbons in the Christian Science Monitor, "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "File:Koppen-Geiger Map TUR present.svg - Wikipedia", "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri", "Trabzon, Turkey Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)", Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583, People and culture of Trabzon and Black sea region, "Turkish city grapples with violent record", "Suspects in Journalist's Killing Came From a Hotbed of Turkish Ultranationalist Sentiment",, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Black Sea port cities and towns in Turkey, Populated places established in the 8th century BC, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2011, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Trapezian, Trapezuntine, Trebizonian, Trabzonlu, The "Atatürk Köşkü" is a villa built in 1890 by a local Greek merchant.